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Jun

1

White Pottery Gui Pitcher

By Ceramic Design



White Pottery Gui Pitcher – Late Ta-wen-k’ou Culture (ca. 4200-2600 BC), Neolithic period, Height: 29.5 cm, body height: 21.6 cm, width at widest: 16.9 cm

White Pottery Gui Pitcher

White pottery was made using clay with a higher concentration of aluminum oxide that is then fired. The potters in the Ta-wen-k’ou Culture used clay to fashion vessels like this one for alcoholic beverages that suggest an abstract bird craning its neck as it cries out.

Mar

3

gold engraved porcelain Vase

By Ceramic Design



gold engraved porcelain Vase

Size: 34*15.5CM, we can do other sizes according to your requests.

Material: fine clay & glaze

package:1pc per box, It is guaranteed to arrive in good working condition.

Product Description

gold engraved porcelain Vase
many new designs available
elegant Chinese style
Small order accepted

glossy glaze Also available as a lamp. Color options: silver, gold, yellow, celadon, crackle, grey, red etc.

Many other designs available, pls contact us to know more details.

Feb

13

Blanc de Chine

By Ceramic Design



Blanc de Chine is a type of white porcelain made at Dehua in the Fujian province. It has been produced from the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) to the present day. Large quantities arrived in Europe as Chinese Export Porcelain in the early 18th century and it was copied at Meissen and elsewhere.

The area along the Fujian coast was traditionally one of the main ceramic exporting centers. Over one-hundred and eighty kiln sites have been identified extending in historical range from the Song period to present.


From the Ming period porcelain objects were manufactured that achieved a fusion of glaze and body traditionally referred to as “ivory white” and “milk white.” The special characteristic of Dehua porcelain is the very small amount of iron oxide in it, allowing it to be fired in an oxidising atmosphere to a warm white or pale ivory colour. (Wood, 2007)

The porcelain body is not very plastic but vessel forms have been made from it. Donnelly, (1969, pp.xi-xii) lists the following types of product: figures, boxes, vases and jars, cups and bowls, fishes, lamps, cup-stands, censers and flowerpots, animals, brush holders, wine and teapots, Buddhist and Taoist figures, secular figures and puppets. There was a large output of figures, especially religious figures, e.g. Guanyin, Maitreya, Lohan and Ta-mo figures.

The numerous Dehua porcelain factories today make figures and tableware in modern styles. During the Cultural Revolution “Dehua artisans applied their very best skills to produce immaculate statuettes of the Great Leader and the heroes of the revolution. Portraits of the stars of the new proletarian opera in their most famous roles were produced on a truly massive scale.” Mao Zedong figures later fell out of favour but have been revived for foreign collectors.

Notable artists in blanc de Chine, such as the late Ming period He Chaozong, signed their creations with their seals. Wares include crisply modeled figures, cups, bowls and joss stick-holders.

Many of the best examples of blanc de Chine are found in Japan where the white variety was termed hakugorai or “Korean white”, a term often found in tea ceremony circles. The British Museum in London has a large number of blanc de Chine pieces, having received as a gift in 1980 the entire collection of P.J.Donnelly.

Feb

13

Qingbai wares

By Ceramic Design



Qingbai wares (also called ‘yingqing’) were made at Jingdezhen and at many other southern kilns from the time of the Northern Song Dynasty until they were eclipsed in the 14th century by underglaze-decorated blue and white wares. Qingbai in Chinese literally means “clear blue-white“. The qingbai glaze is a porcelain glaze, so-called because it was made using pottery stone. The qingbai glaze is clear, but contains iron in small amounts. When applied over a white porcelain body the glaze produces a greenish-blue colour that gives the glaze its name. Some have incised or moulded decorations.

The Song dynasty qingbai bowl illustrated was likely made at the Jingdezhen village of Hutian, which was also the site of the Imperial kilns established in 1004. The bowl has incised decoration, possibly representing clouds or the reflection of clouds in the water. The body is white, translucent and has the texture of very-fine sugar, indicating that it was made using crushed and refined pottery stone instead of pottery stone and kaolin. The glaze and the body of the bowl would have been fired together, in a saggar, possibly in a large wood-burning dragon-kiln or climbing-kiln, typical of southern kilns in the period.

Though many Song and Yuan qingbai bowls were fired upside down in special segmented saggars, a technique first developed at the Ding kilns in Hebei province. The rims of such wares were left unglazed but were often bound with bands of silver, copper or lead.

One remarkable example of qingbai porcelain is the so-called Fonthill Vase, described in a guide for Fonthill Abbey published in 1823

“…an oriental china bottle, superbly mounted, said to be the earliest known specimen of porcelain introduced into Europe”

The vase was made at Jingdezhen, probably around 1300 and was sent as a present to Pope Benedict XII by one of the last Yuan emperors of China, in 1338. The mounts referred to in the 1823 description were of enamelled silver-gilt and were added to the vase in Europe in 1381. An 18th century water colour of the vase complete with its mounts exists, but the mounts themselves were removed and lost in the 19th century. The vase is now in the National Museum of Ireland. It is often held that qingbai wares were not subject to the higher standards and regulations of the other porcelain wares, since they were made for everyday use. They were mass-produced, and received little attention from scholars and antiquarians. The Fonthill Vase, given by a Chinese emperor to a pope, might appear to cast at least some doubt on this view.

Feb

12

Ru ware

By Ceramic Design



Like Ding ware, Ru (Wade-Giles: ju) was produced in North China for imperial use. The Ru kilns were near the Northern Song capital at Kaifeng. In similar fashion to Longquan celadons, Ru pieces have small amounts of iron in their glaze that oxidize and turn greenish when fired in a reducing atmosphere. Ru wares range in colour—from nearly white to a deep robin’s egg—and often are covered with reddish-brown crackles. The crackles, or “crazing,” are caused when the glaze cools and contracts faster than the body, thus having to stretch and ultimately to split, (as seen in the detail at right; see also ). The art historian James Watt comments that the Song dynasty was the first period that viewed crazing as a merit rather than a defect. Moreover, as time went on, the bodies got thinner and thinner, while glazes got thicker, until by the end of the Southern Song the ‘green-glaze’ was thicker than the body, making it extremely ‘fleshy’ rather than ‘bony,’ to use the traditional analogy (see section on Guan ware, below). Too, the glaze tends to drip and pool slightly, leaving it thinner at the top, where the clay peeps through.

As with Ding ware, the Song imperial court lost access to the Ru kilns after it fled Kaifeng when the Jin invaded, and settled at Lin’an in Hangzhou, towards the south. There the Emperor Gaozong founded the Guan yao (‘official kilns’) right outside the new capital in order to produce imitations of Ru ware. However, posterity has remembered Ru ware as something unmatched by later attempts; Master Gao says, “Compared with Guan yao, the above were of finer substance and more brilliant luster.”

Feb

8

Jian tea wares

By Ceramic Design



Jian blackwares, mainly comprising tea wares, were made at kilns located in Jianyang of Fujian province. They reached the peak of their popularity during the Song dynasty. The wares were made using locally-won, iron-rich clays and fired in an oxidising atmosphere at temperatures in the region of 1300 °C. The glaze was made using clay similar to that used for forming the body, except fluxed with wood-ash. At high temperatures the molten glaze separate to produce a pattern called hare’s fur. When Jian wares were set tilted for firing, drips run down the side, creating evidence of liquid glaze pooling.

Jian tea bowlSong Dynasty, Metropolitan Museum of Art

The hare’s fur Jian tea bowl illustrated in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York was made during the Song dynasty (960 to 1279 AD) and exhibits the typical pooling, or thickening, of the glaze near the bottom. The hare’s fur patterning in the glaze of this bowl resulted from the random effect of phase separation during early cooling in the kiln and is unique to this bowl. This phase separation in the iron-rich glazes of Chinese blackwares was also used to produce the well-known oil-spot, teadust and partridge-feather glaze effects. No two bowls have identical patterning. The bowl also has a dark brown iron-foot which is typical of this style. It would have been fired, probably with several thousand other pieces, each in its own stackable saggar, in a single-firing in a large dragon kiln. One such kiln, built on the side of a steep hill, was almost 150 metres in length, though most Jian dragon kilns were fewer than 100 metres in length.

An 11th century resident of Fujian wrote:

Tea is of light colour and looks best in black cups. The cups made at Jianyang are bluish-black in colour, marked like the fur of a hare. Being of rather thick fabric they retain the heat, so that when once warmed through they cool very slowly, and they are additionally valued on this account. None of the cups produced at other places can rival these. Blue and white cups are not used by those who give tea-tasting parties.

At the time, tea was prepared by whisking powdered leaves that had been pressed into dried cakes together with hot water, (somewhat akin to matcha in Japanese Tea Ceremony). The water added to this powder produced a white froth that would stand out better against a dark bowl. Tastes in preparation changed during the Ming dynasty; the Hongwu Emperor himself preferred leaves to powdered cakes, and would accept only leaf tea as tribute from tea-producing regions. Leaf tea, in contrast to powdered tea, was prepared by steeping whole leaves in boiling water – a process that led to the invention of the teapot and subsequent popularity of Yixing wares over the dark tea bowls.

Jian tea wares of the Song dynasty were also greatly appreciated and copied in Japan, where they were known as tenmoku wares.

Feb

8

Tang Sancai burial wares

By Ceramic Design



Sancai means three-colours. However, the colours of the glazes used to decorate the wares of the Tang dynasty were not limited to three in number. In the West, Tang sancai wares were sometimes referred to as egg-and-spinach by dealers for the use of green, yellow and white. Though the latter of the two colours might be more properly described as amber and off-white / cream.

Sancai wares were northern wares made using white and buff-firing secondary kaolins and fire clays. At kiln sites located at Tongchuan, Neiqui county in Hebei and Gongxian in Henan, the clays used for burial wares were similar to those used by Tang potters. The burial wares were fired at a lower temperature than contemporaneous whitewares. Burial wares, such as the well-known representations of camels and horses, were cast in sections, in moulds with the parts luted together using clay slip. In some cases, a degree of individuality was imparted to the assembled figurines by hand-carving.

Apr

21

Scope, materials and methods of porcelain

By Ceramic Design



ScopeThe most common uses of porcelain are the creation of artistic objects and the production of more utilitarian wares. It is difficult to distinguish between stoneware Wardrobes  and porcelain because this depends upon how the terms are defined. A useful working definition of porcelain might include a broad range of ceramic wares, including some that could be classified as a stoneware.

Materials

Clay is generally thought to be the primary material from which porcelain is made, even though clay minerals might account for only a small proportion of the whole. The word “paste” is an old term for both the unfired and fired material. A more common terminology these days for the unfired material is “body”, for example, when buying materials a potter might order an amount of porcelain body from a vendor.

The composition of porcelain is highly variable, but the clay mineral kaolinite Kitchen Cabinet is often a significant component. Other materials can include feldspar, ball clay, glass,Track Bolts bone ash, steatite, quartz, petuntse and alabaster; further information on these formulations is given at “soft-paste porcelain“.

The clays used are often described as being long or short, depending on their plasticity. Long clays are cohesive (sticky) and have high plasticity; short clays are less cohesive and have lower plasticity. In Washers  soil mechanics, plasticity is determined by measuring the increase in content of water required to change a clay from a solid state bordering on the plastic, to a plastic state bordering on the liquid, though the term is also used less formally to describe the facility with which a clay may be worked. Clays used for porcelain are generally of lower plasticity and are shorter than many other pottery clays. They wet very quickly, meaning that small changes in the content of water can produce large changes in workability. Thus, the range of water content within which these clays can be worked is very narrow and the loss or gain of water during storage and throwing or forming must be carefully controlled to keep the clay from becoming too wet or too dry to manipulate.

Methods

The following section provides background information on the methods used to form, decorate, finish, glaze, and fire ceramic wares.

Forming. The relatively low plasticity of the material used for making porcelain make shaping the clay difficult. In the case of throwing on a potters wheel it can be seen as pulling clay upwards and outwards into a required shape and potters often speak of pulling when forming a piece on a wheel, but the term is misleading; clay in a plastic condition cannot be pulled without breaking. The process of throwing is in fact one of remarkable complexity. To the casual observer, throwing carried out by an expert potter appears to be a graceful and almost effortless activity, but this masks the fact that a rotating mass of clay possesses energy and momentum in an abundance that will, given the slightest mishandling, rapidly cause the workpiece to become uncontrollable.

Glazing. Unlike their lower-fired counterparts, porcelain wares do not need glazing to render them impermeable to liquids and for the most part are glazed for decorative purposes and to make them resistant to dirt and staining. Great detail is given in the glaze Stainless Steel Kitchen Sink  article. Many types of glaze, such as the iron-containing glaze used on the celadon wares of Longquan, were designed specifically for their striking effects on porcelain.

Decoration. Porcelain wares may be decorated under the glaze using pigments that include cobalt and copper or over the glaze using coloured enamels. Like many earlier wares, modern porcelains are often bisque-fired at around 1000 degrees Celsius, coated with glaze and then sent for a second glaze-firing at a temperature of about 1300 degrees Celsius or greater. Another early method is once-fired where the glaze is applied to the unfired body and the two fired together in a single operation.

Firing. In this process, green (unfired) ceramic wares are heated to high temperatures in a kiln to permanently set their shapes. Porcelain is fired at a higher temperature than earthenware so that the body can vitrify Stainless Steel Kitchen Sink  and become non-porous.

Apr

21

Porcelain

By Ceramic Design



Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating raw materials, generally including clay in the form of kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 °C (2,192 °F) and 1,400 °C (2,552 °F). The toughness, strength, and translucence of porcelain arise mainly from the formation of glass and the mineral mullite within the fired body at these high temperatures.

Porcelain derives its present name from old Italian porcellana (cowrie shell) because of its resemblance to the translucent surface of the shell. Porcelain can informally be referred to as “china” in some English-speaking countries, as China was the birth place of porcelain making. Properties associated with porcelain include low permeability and elasticity; considerable strength, hardness, glassiness, brittleness, Kitchen Cabinets ,whiteness, translucence, and resonance; and a high resistance to chemical attack and thermal shock.

For the purposes of trade, the Combined Nomenclature of the European Communities defines porcelain Bolts as being “completely vitrified, hard, impermeable (even before glazing), China Kitchen Cabinetry  white or artificially coloured, translucent (except when of considerable thickness) and resonant.” However, the term porcelain lacks a universal definition and has “been applied in a very unsystematic fashion to substances of diverse kinds which have only certain surface-qualities in common” (Burton 1906).

Porcelain is used to make table, kitchen, sanitary, and decorative wares; objects of fine art; and tiles. Its high resistance to the passage of electricity makes porcelain an excellent Wardrobes  insulator. Dental porcelain is used to make false teeth, caps, crowns and veneers.

Apr

18

Porcelain culture introduction

By Ceramic Design



Yuan porcelain culture
Became owner of Central Plains for 91 years in Yuan Dynasty, the porcelain industry declined relatively Song, but got new development this period, Such as the red rise in blue and green flower and glaze, porcelain a large amount of prevalence of color, the white porcelain becomes the mainstream of porcelain , Suffused with blue and green in the glaze color is white, two generations” porcelain was developed in the Ming and Qing dynasty after driving, got very high achievement.
Qu Fu Kiln Designing officer”s kiln in scene Jing De-zhen in Yuan Dynasty, the making was exquisite, often there are two words of ” Qu Fu ” in the ornament pattern, Therefore also called QuFu Jingde Zhen form the whole porcelain centre from the Yuan Dynasty.
White and Blue flower White and blue flower succeeds with gu material on the white porcelain , only use pure blue color, But colour, time of material, can present splend result.White and blue flower is very fantastic also complex and collected. pure and honest, refined characteristic , become the main product in porcelain .
[Red glaze ]Red glaze with oxidize copper replace cobalt material, method with blue and green to spend copper belong to glaze colored drawing or pattern, Because the copper is reduced into the snow red, completely red in the glaze, so red in the famous glaze, The red technique of expression of another kind that appeared following one 30 jin of kilns Yuan Dynasty, it is difficult to burn, Modular Cabinets,Fire a relatively difficult one of porcelain , often gray and red or dun, looks unstable, There is little output, it is less to be handed down from ancient times.
????The pottery art of our country developed and entered a journey newly again in the Ming Dynasty, the porcelain before Ming Dynasty relied mainly on celadon, It relies mainly on white porcelain to be especially blue and green to take later Ming Dynasty, the five colours become the Ming Dynasty white main product of porcelain, Door Panel,And Jing De-zhen become main kiln factory is largest, extend two generation to wane one year Ming and Qing dynasty even more, Describe grand occasion at that time for ” daytime white cigarette close empty, the red flame burnt it at night “. ????
????Happy high De for being blue and green to spend period porcelain in early days, though compare with forever, Lacquer Cabinet,But because Su mud Bohai Sea blue and green cobalt introduction of material use, make blue and green flower of period this yield unusually brilliant results; Draw artistic accomplishment of worker very high, utilize to come loose and faint blue and green material , make the end bone technique of writing of flowers, The black one is interesting to produce water; It is different and deep or light on the lines that some utilize , produce the lively change, seem more vivid and strong. The introduction of Islam had given bringing the abundant pattern at this moment too since Yuan Dynasty, Overall arrangement content is clear and clear, feel that he is forceful and simple and unsophisticated. ??
????Chen Hua ,Zhen De middle period in blue and white porcelain, mud Su Bohai Sea blue and green to use up already at this moment, Use instead equal and blue and green, color light to compare with Su Qing strong, have scattered to faint the black result of ink still more, So in addition towards write and add color or careful behavior respect develop, paint tactics strive to be concise, Copy level dyeing thinly, add the white porcelain thin , reach the exquisite goal.
Jia Qing , Wang Li is the later time of white and blue flower, the use is to the Jia QingQing porcelain culture
In Qing Dynasty the Chinese porcelain may be said that reached the peak of perfection. Experience for thousands of years, add the natural raw materials of Jing De-zhen, superintend and direct the management of officer Tao, The grand three generations of Kang Xi, Yong Zheng, doing in the early years of Qing Dynasty, because politics was stable, economic prosperity, The emperor pays attention to, the achievement of the porcelain is very remarkable too, the emperor”s hobby and recommending , Make porcelain of clear the beginning manufacturing technology superb , decorate meticulous aureole , out of the ordinary achievement have, The most brilliant and magnificent in the long ceramic history of China.
????The ceramic production of Qing Dynasty, divided by the officer of Jing De-zhen kiln was outside the centre, regional member of a nationality”s Kitchen Cabinet kilns were all extremely prosperous and prosperous, And get very great achievement, especially the west wind advances gradually , the pottery is sold in other areas, Western raw materials and biography of technology enter, outside to influence, make ceramics for being abundant adopting colourful more, Because quantity is produced and models becoming a common practice too, court workers thin and daintily in the studio, although there are surprising creations, But it is angry to lack the intention but become craftsmans .
????The white porcelain of Dehua of Fujian Province, lustrous and transparent and white and take the transparent sense , it is quite famous to produce the statue of Buddha. In middle period of Qing Dynasty, sold the wide color coming out in ceramic development in other areas, shone people gorgeously .
????[fammille-rose ]Yong Zheng period color most successful with powder, powder color main characteristic soft and simple and elegant to spend tone, The proportion is meticulous and careful and neat, so have another name called ” the soft color “; Adopt white powder attack bottom become three-dimensional form add the color, and dye the deep or light light and shade level, Fresh and thorough, warm and moist and plain, have meaning of Chinese realistic painting birds and flowers and strong ornament deeply .
????[Glaze colors ]Qianlong period inherit and two towards the atmosphere, produce many beautiful exquisite work the Former Qing Dynasty, And then abuse the capital , pursue the intention, synthesize various kinds of craft skill and technique, Use it on the pottery, imitate other products of different materials a lot of too. Electric Oven The greatest achievement is to glaze colors on the colored drawing or pattern, adopt the pigment imported to fire first, So call ” the foreign color .
????Glazing the material that colors uses, the color is selected sparkling and crystal-clearly, the quality is congealed thick, Used as decorating, the pattern has a little protruding sense that piles. Foetus, porcelain of Jing De-zhen, arrive palace, life colored drawing or pattern, chemical industry of studio,, belong to more ” interior secret to play with court, So the technique of painting of ornament is extremely meticulous , pursue aureole gorgeously , there is breath of palaces, In addition, ” high in the ancient moon ” in the palace makes style, the office in all belong to, become famous ancient moon high porcelain .
????[Purple sand ]Yixing purple sand reach the Qing Dynasty heavy output, the classic came forth in large number, besides Yixing pot manufacture, Daily various types of articles have such as bowl record, vase, flowerpot,etc. , keep foetus true quality, ancient purpose abundant, various kinds of color pottery have intention too.
????[Zhigold ]Zhi gold China Kitchen Cabinets with fill out color by the gold duct, have characteristic quite , adopt Jingde white embryo add color export in Guangzhou, Prolong and pass to today too.
????[Black porcelain ]The black porcelain in Boshan of Shandong, is popular article for daily use of northern peasant family. [The stone and gulf moulding ]Gulf, stone of Guangxi, mould personage pay attention to very much in recent years, glaze color changes all the time , Lifelike, especially with story personages, the expression is vivid and interesting, Fond of the collector.