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Blue and white wares

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Blue and white porcelain

Following in the tradition of earlier qingbai porcelains, blue and white wares are glazed using a transparent porcelain glaze. The blue decoration is painted onto the body of the porcelain before glazing, using very finely ground cobalt oxide mixed with water. After the decoration has been applied the pieces are glazed and fired.

It is believed that underglaze blue and white porcelain was first made in the Tang Dynasty. Only three complete pieces of Tang blue and white porcelain are known to exist (in Singapore from Indonesian Belitung shipwreck ), but shards dating to the 8th or 9th century have been unearthed at Yangzhou in the Jiangsu province. It has been suggested that the shards originated from a kiln in the province of Henan. In 1957, excavations at the site of a pagoda in the province Zhejiang uncovered a Northern Song bowl decorated with underglaze blue and further fragments have since been discovered at the same site. In 1970, a small fragment of a blue and white bowl, again dated to the 11th century, was also excavated in the province of Zhejiang.

In 1975, shards decorated with underglaze blue were excavated at a kiln site in Jiangxi and, in the same year, an underglaze blue and white urn was excavated from a tomb dated to 1319, in the province of Jiangsu. It is of interest to note that a Yuan funerary urn decorated with underglaze blue and underglaze red and dated 1338 is still in the Chinese taste, even though by this time the large-scale production of blue and white porcelain in the Yuan, Mongol taste had started its influence at Jingdezhen.

Starting early in the 14th century, blue and white porcelain rapidly became the main product of Jingdezhen, reaching the height of its technical excellence during the later years of the reign of the Kangxi Emperor and continuing in present times to be an important product of the city.

The tea caddy illustrated shows many of the characteristics of blue and white porcelain produced during the Kangxi period. The translucent body showing through the clear glaze is of great whiteness and the cobalt decoration, applied in many layers, has a fine blue hue. The decoration, a sage in a landscape of lakes and mountains with blazed rocks is typical of the period. The piece would have been fired in a saggar (a lidded ceramic box intended to protect the piece from kiln debris, smoke and cinders during firing) in a reducing atmosphere in a wood-burning egg-shaped kiln, at a temperature approaching 1350 °C.

Distinctive blue-and-white porcelain was exported to Japan where it is known as Tenkei blue-and-white ware or ko sometsukei. This ware is thought to have been especially ordered by tea masters for Japanese ceremony.



Jingdezhen Int’l Ceramics Fair charms visitors

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China Jingdezhen Int’l Ceramics Fair 2011 has opened in the porcelain harbor of Jingdezhen, in the Eastern China’s Jiangxi province.

China Jingdezhen Int’l Ceramics Fair 2011 has opened in the porcelain harbor of Jingdezhen, in the Eastern China’s Jiangxi province.



Ceramic crisis countries in the world’s a mixed reaction to

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The 16th World Ceramic Forum held recently in China Taiwan to participate in the forum are China (including Taiwan), Brazil, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Spain, Japan, the United States and other ceramic tile producers, representatives of almost occupied Ceramic production in the world as a whole 80% of the share. Delegates to explore the theme of the Forum include the world’s consumption and production and consumption trends, the impact of financial crisis for the ceramics industry.
In 2008, the world’s ceramic tile production rose to 8.5 billion square meters, annual production is expected to 2009, and 2008 unchanged. Ceramic tile consumption in the Asian region to maintain a good upward trend, while Europe, Japan and the United States of these the world’s top 10 economies from 2008 began a gradual downward trend in consumption of ceramic tiles. As the impact of financial crisis, this year declines in sales of ceramic tile in some countries as much as 20% ~ 50%. So far, China, Brazil, Italy and Spain have always dominated the world’s ceramic tile production in the first few big countries. Representatives of other countries and regions as well as data reporting point of view, the situation in China a single good, Italy, Spain, more powerful industry hit the United States is full of future market expectations.


China is entering the recovery status of the whole industry
Forum Chinese government increased domestic demand and China’s vast rural market pull, the Chinese construction industry in a crisis for the nation’s adjustment and upgrading, the annual output of more than 6 billion square meters, exports only 670 million square meters, 88% of the domestic market, imports market share of 0.06%, the product price has risen too.
Product structure, the ceramic tile 64%, interior glazed tiles 25, 7% of stoneware tiles, stoneware and fine stoneware tiles 4%, the low-end products accounted for more than 80%; first half of 2009, the whole industry into the “revival” state, national industrial transfer and distribution once again started; decline in exports and domestic sales increase; production costs decreased, corporate profits fell in the morning and synchronization; the whole industry, basically through the most difficult times in March and gradually into the recovery phase began.
Of energy, industry, annual consumption of about 150 million tons of mineral raw materials, basic local materials, the Chinese government energy-saving emission reduction policies and export taxes reduced to 8% of the policies to help Chinese enterprises to ride out the storm played a role, the Chinese government promulgated a series of environmental policy, so that China Building Ceramic Industry more concerned about environmental and social responsibility.

India is projected 7% growth in the
While India affected by economic crisis, 24% of the factories to stop the kiln, the number of unemployed reached 40000, but has maintained GDP growth of India, India housing industries and pillar industries, IT has continued to maintain growth, future The Government plans to increase by about 2,000 million units of housing construction. Ceramic tile production increased by 20% last year to reach 390 million square meters. At present, India’s per capita consumption of ceramic tiles from 0.36 square meters, there is still much room for development. Marketing point of view, yield 70% reliance on the domestic market. In the output of which accounted for 43% of tiles and other floor tiles accounted for 40 percent and imports 2,450 million square meters, export 1,400 million square meters. 2008 sales of view, the international market increased by 11%, imports increased 24%. This year, the domestic market is estimated that 7% growth.

German sales profits encountered unprecedented difficulties
On the whole German tile production is shrinking year by year, last year remained at 6,500 million square meters. In 2009 has dropped by 17 ~ 20%, sales profits were encountered unprecedented difficulties.

Italy is expected to reach 22 percent decline in output this year
Over the past two years by the Italian Federation of the continuous integration into the ceramics related to many of the chapters have joined together to form a more powerful system for face-degree ceramic industry economic crisis. In respect of the current domestic form, is expected to Italy this year, production decreased by about 22% to reduce the roughly 4,000 million square meters, sales are expected to decline to about 18% of approximately equivalent to 4 billion euros. In terms of investment decreased 8% to about 7,500 million euros, but the contrast from the turnover and sales terms, the investment rate was maintained at a proportion of the past. Probably accounted for about 15% of sales. From overseas exports, the Italian or to maintain the highest average price, with an average of 10 euros per square meter of ceramic tiles, while ranking second in Spain is 8 euros, while the output of superpower China 4 euros. From the demand perspective, the Italian market fundamentals remain unchanged, because the Italian people would prefer to use ceramic products.

Spanish ceramic tile industry output will decline every year 2009 is expected to be even more severe situation, the situation is even worse than in 2008. Spanish industry is now facing a double crisis: the financial crisis and the Spanish real estate market surplus. At present, the ceramic tile industry, the number of unemployed persons is probably around 8,000, the output will decrease under the 2009 and 2007 to do more, the output decreased by 55%, sales decreased by 37%. Apparent decline in domestic demand due to the market, imports also declined. As the impact of financial crisis, exports were restricted, while the exchange rate issue also affected the export sector.

Indonesia’s exports in recent years, the domestic political situation in Indonesia is very
economy has stabilized, the cabinet selection completed this year. Brick’s production of 3.5 million square meters, there are 250 million daily-use porcelain, sanitary ware 4.5 million, the entire output value 800 million U.S. dollars. Main export countries are the United States, Australia and Europe, these three countries. However, due to the economic crisis, which three countries are both affected by more serious, neighboring countries, an annual output of 1,900 million square meters, Malaysia, Thailand, 6,300 million square meters, Vietnam and Indonesia, has remained flat, so not very recent years, the export boom.

Brazil had to rely on the domestic market
from the Brazilian point of view, a decrease of 8 percent of employees, production, a decrease of 11%. Brazil’s domestic market demand increased by 7%, 13% reduction in overseas markets. Brazil’s main export countries are the United States ceramic tile, but sales fell 63% last year, while exports to Latin American countries such as the products also reduced a lot. Imports increased by 23%, and in this 23%, almost all imports come from Chinese products. 3.9 square meters per capita consumption of ceramic tiles, the ceramic industry from the Brazilian point of view, or to rely on the domestic market.

The United States has gone through the most difficult times
The U.S. market has been the most difficult times, from the first half of 2009 data, the tile consumption of 650 million square feet, and only half of the same period in 2008, and now is picking up. Now the housing market began to rebound in October compared with second-hand housing ring up 10.1%, sales of 6.1 million units, real estate, generally as a leading indicator of building materials, from this point of view, is more optimistic about the future market. The U.S. market mainly depend on imports. From the global production trends, to 07-08 from all major producing countries, the changes in ceramic tile or less is expected in 2009 will continue in 2008 the situation will not have too many changes. Over the past year, in terms of the global ceramic tile industry is the most difficult one, even though production on the rise, but the profits of an enterprise is on the decline, in addition to China, Brazil, Vietnam and a few other domestic sales growth, Italy, Spain, India, Japan, the United States, tile sharp decline in consumption, and will have an impact on the future.



Jingdezhen porcelain traditionally HKADC modern sensation in Hong Kong

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Jingdezhen porcelain traditionally HKADC modern sensation in Hong Kong

From the University of Hong Kong Museum of Art and co-sponsored Jingdezhen City Department of Cultural Affairs, “Jiang Kiln” Paul Jiang Qing, founder of the contractor’s “One to review the past to the new – the modern tradition of Jingdezhen Ceramic Art Exhibition” in April from the Museum of Fine Arts at the University of Hong Kong has been carried out, visits to the people of Hong Kong and foreigners flocked to the visitors a fresh, exciting feel. In Hong Kong to attend the Jiangxi Province in 2009 (Hong Kong) Week, deputy director of the Municipal People’s Congress, Sau Ming, vice mayor in high spirits to visit the exhibition.

A total of 135 sets of modern works of traditional pottery exhibition. These works have not only carrying forward the tradition of innovation, not only as antique porcelain, but also different from the general sense of the antique porcelain, the court through traditional painting and a combination of three-dimensional objects, into the modern aesthetic elements into “the cleverest learned new” expression of a new, fully demonstrates the breadth and depth of Jingdezhen, the south-pointing carriage, full of vitality and creativity of the ceramic culture. The exhibition also displayed the painting tools and more than 40 kinds of paints. These exhibits have been to the Russian State Tretyakov Museum and Art Gallery, Bahrain National Museum, Liu Haisu Shanghai Art Museum, Dalian is Chuan Museum, Museum of Jiangxi Province, one in each, are caused by an unusual reaction with wood. The exhibition in Hong Kong has been on display in July of this year.




National Treasure: Jingdezhen Ceramics

By Ceramic Design

 National Treasure: Jingdezhen Ceramics、

National Treasure: Jingdezhen Ceramics

Jingdezhen Ceramics Museum remains the most renowned cultural tourist attraction in the city. 

Opening in 1954, the Jingdezhen Ceramics Museum became the first institution of its kind in China and today it remains perhaps the most renowned cultural tourist attraction in Jingdezhen, a city known as the Capital of Porcelain.

The museum houses a great variety of historic pottery and porcelain exhibits. Most pieces were fired in governmental kilns during the Ming and Qing dynasties (1368-1911). Also featured are artworks from the Republic of China period (1912-1949) and masterpieces produced by renowned ceramists of modern times. The museum has become a window to a cultured past spanning 1,000 years of Jingdezhen’s ceramic civilization.

The collection includes rare porcelain wares from the Song (960-1276), Yuan (1271-1368), Ming (1368-1644), and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties, many of which are considered national treasures. And the exhibit surpasses all other museums in its holding of ceramic masterpieces created in the past 100 years.

The total collection is comprised of more than 13 categories and 250 subcategories of ceramics, spanning more than 2,000 shapes and more than 10,000 patterns.

Housed here are 378 pieces that have won international, national, or ministerial gold and silver prizes with four having won the National Prize for New Product Development. Exhibits also include many porcelain wares that were presented as state gifts in times past, as well as noted porcelain wares from Germany, Britain, Japan, South Korea and the United States.

For decades the museum has cultivated talented artisans of the ceramic craft. Today there are four: Ning Qinzheng, vice curator of the museum and a master of art and craft in Jiangxi Province; Cao Ganyuan, academic supervisor of the museum and chairman of the Jingdezhen Calligraphers’ Association; Chen Jun, curator assistant of the museum and a senior specialist in art and craft; and Sun Lixin, a senior specialist in arts and crafts born into a family of ceramists and now acting as director of the Jingdezhen Wenbo Art Exchange Center. Many of their pieces have garnered domestic and international awards and are popular among collectors both in China and overseas.

Winning wide praise both home and abroad, in recent years cultural relics and artworks from the Jingdezhen Ceramics Museum have appeared at many exhibitions in France, Japan, Macao and Hong Kong. The year 2004 marked the millennium anniversary of Jingdezhen and in 2003, the Chinese Culture Center set up in Paris by the Ministry of Culture of China held “Burning Brilliance”¡ªThe Exhibition of Ancient Porcelain Masterpieces of Jingdezhen. French President Jacques Chirac personally wrote to the center and visited the exhibition. “As the essence of Chinese culture, porcelain spreads the fame of Chinese culture around the world, especially in Europe,” he said.

The ceramic exhibition and other featured mediums reflecting Chinese heritage at the Chinese Culture Year in France proved a strong draw for the French public. The exhibition, with only 60 pieces displayed, attracted more than 10,000 visitors and all exhibits were heavily attended.

Jingdezhen’s porcelain artworks have generated interest and participation within the international culture of ceramics. For instance, the ceramic industry of France has developed a close relationship with that of Jingdezhen.

From the Ming Dynasty to the middle Qing Dynasty, a large quantity of porcelain wares made in Japan were modeled after those made of Jingdezhen, which had already been widely traded and collected across the globe. Since the Ming Dynasty, countless Jingdezhen porcelains were transported by Portuguese traders to Europe via Macao. Over the past 100 years in Hong Kong, an international metropolis known by some as the Capital of Art Collections, there have emerged a number of collectors who revel in Jingdezhen porcelains.

The French newspaper, Le Figaro, in praise of the Exhibition of Ancient Porcelain Masterpieces of Jingdezhen, described its cultural wares as: “Resplendent white gold, beautiful Chinese porcelain.” These are the particular jewels of the Jingdezhen Ceramics Museum, a palace of art depicting a city’s 1,000-year-old ceramic civilization.

Background information:

A world-famous brand, since the 15th Century Jingdezhen has enjoyed great reputation within the ceramic industry, whereas genuine porcelain was not produced in Europe until the 18th Century. Under the influence of Jingdezhen ceramics, the industry began to truly develop in Europe in the 19th Century. From the late Ming Dynasty through the early Qing Dynasty, chinaware – with Jingdezhen as synonym – sold well in Europe and around the world. Known in some regions as white gold, porcelain wares were popular with families of both aristocratic and common background. Noblemen in Europe and Japan were proud of their collections of Jingdezhen ceramics and shipping companies gained great wealth by trading Jingdezhen ceramics. (Thus the derivation of the label China in Europe.)