Archive

You are currently browsing the archives for the Ceramic Pottery category.

Jun

26

Red Pottery Bowl with Flat Bottom

By Ceramic Design Ideas



Red Pottery Bowl with Flat Bottom

Cishan Culture (ca. 6000-5600 BCE), Neolithic Era (ca. 10000- ca. 2000 BCE)

Pottery of the Cishan culture is dominated by red pottery, and the bowl is one of the most common forms. The Cishan culture is named after the village of Cishan, in Wu’an county, Hebei province, where the first finds of this type were made in 1972. It dates to the Northern China Middle Neolithic, 6000-5600 BC.

Jun

1

High-stemmed Black Pottery Cup

By Ceramic Design



High-stemmed Black Pottery Cup

High-stemmed Black Pottery Cup – Shantung Lung-shan Culture (ca. 2600-2000 BC), Neolithic period. Height: 24 cm, rim diameter: 11 cm, base diameter: 6 cm.

During the Lung-shan Culture, the technique of using a potting wheel to produce ceramic objects was developed. Vessels with very thin walls could be made, and even carved with openwork patterns, in what became known as “egg-shell pottery”. In the kiln, the adding of charcoal at the very end or closing the air intake would create a flux of carbon that creates black pottery.

 

Feb

26

Joseon Dynasty porcelain

By Ceramic Design



Joseon white porcelain and Buncheong

During the Joseon Dynasty, (1392–1910) ceramic ware was considered to represent the highest quality of achievement from imperial, city, and provincial kilns, the last of which were export-driven wares. This was the golden age of Korean pottery, with a long period of growth in imperial and provincial kilns, and much work of the highest quality still preserved.

Wares evolved along Chinese lines in terms of colour, shape, and technique. Celadon, white porcelain, and storage pottery were similar, but with slight variations in glazes, incision designs, florality, and weight. The Ming influence in blue and white wares using cobalt-blue glazes existed, but without the pthalo blue range, and the three-dimensional glassine colour depth of Ming Dynasty Chinese works.

Simplified designs emerged early on. Buddhist designs still prevailed in celadon wares: lotus flowers, and willow trees. The form most often seen was that of pear-shaped bottles. Notable were thinner glazes, and colourless glazes for buncheong or stoneware.
After the prolonged fall of the Ming dynasty, immigration of some Chinese master potters occurred in southern coastal Korea. Qing colouring, brighter and almost Scythian in enamel imitation, was rejected by Korean potters, in favour of simpler, less decorated wares in keeping with a new dynasty that built itself on military tradition.

Generally, the ceramics of this dynasty is divided into early, middle, and late periods, changing every two centuries, approximately; thus 1300 to 1500 is the early period, 1500 to 1700 the middle, and 1700 to 1900–1910 the late period.

The wares began to assume more traditional Korean glazes and more specific designs to meet regional needs. This is to be expected, as the Scythian art influences were of the former dynasty. The rise of white porcelain occurred as a result of Confucian influence and ideals, resulting in purer, less pretentious forms lacking artifice and complexity.

In 1592 during the Japanese invasion of Korea, entire villages of Korean potters were forcibly relocated to Japan permanently damaging the pottery industry as craftsmen had to relearn techniques because the masters were gone.

Feb

26

Goryeo Dynasty porcelain

By Ceramic Design



The Goryeo Dynasty (918–1392) achieved the unification of the Later Three Kingdoms under King Taejo. The works of this period are considered by some to be the finest small-scale works of ceramics in Korean history.

Key-fret, foliate designs, geometric or scrolling flowerhead bands, elliptical panels, stylized fish and insects, and the use of incised designs began at this time. Glazes were usually various shades of celadon, with browned glazes to almost black glazes being used for stoneware and storage. Celadon glazes could be rendered almost transparent to show black and white inlays.

While the forms generally seen are broad-shouldered bottles, larger low bowls or shallow smaller bowls, highly decorated celadon cosmetic boxes, and small slip-inlaid cups, the Buddhist potteries also produced melon-shaped vases, chrysanthemum cups often of spectacularly architectural design on stands with lotus motifs and lotus flower heads. In-curving rimmed alms bowls have also been discovered similar to Korean metalware. Wine cups often had a tall foot which rested on dish-shaped stands.

Feb

14

Wares and figures of Chinese export porcelain

By Ceramic Design



Although European crests on Chinese porcelain can be found as early as the 16th century, around 1700 the demand for Armorial porcelain dramatically increased. Thousands of services were ordered with drawings of individuals’ coats of arms being sent out to China to be copied and shipped back to Europe and, from the late 18th century, to North America. Some were lavishly painted in polychrome enamels and gilding, while others, particularly later, might just incorporate a small crest or monogram in blue and white. Chinese potters copied the popular Japanese Imari porcelains. Chinese Imari continued to be made for export into the second half of the 18th century, examples being recovered as part of the Nanking cargo from the wreck of the Geldermalsen.

 

Qing export porcelain with European Christian scene, 1725-1735.

A wide variety of shapes, some of Chinese or Islamic pottery origin, others copying Faience or metalwork were made. Oriental figures included Chinese gods and goddesses such as Guanyin (the goddess of mercy) and Budai (the god of contentment), figures with nodding heads, seated monks and laughing boys as well as figures of Dutch men and women. From the mid-18th century, even copies of Meissen figures such as Tyrolean dancers were made for export to Europe. Birds and animals, including cows, cranes, dogs, eagles, elephants, pheasants, monkeys and puppies, were popular.

From around 1720, the new Famille rose palette was adopted and quickly supplanted the earlier Famille verte porcelains of the Kangxi period. Famille rose enamels for the export market included the Mandarin Palette. Specific patterns such as tobacco leaf and faux tobacco leaf were popular as were, from around 1800, Canton decorated porcelain with its figures and birds, flowers and insects. Many other types of decoration such as encre de chine or Jesuist Wares, made for Christian missionaries, pieces with European subjects like the Judgment of Paris, or Adam and Eve, were made for the European market.

Feb

13

Qingbai wares

By Ceramic Design



Qingbai wares (also called ‘yingqing’) were made at Jingdezhen and at many other southern kilns from the time of the Northern Song Dynasty until they were eclipsed in the 14th century by underglaze-decorated blue and white wares. Qingbai in Chinese literally means “clear blue-white“. The qingbai glaze is a porcelain glaze, so-called because it was made using pottery stone. The qingbai glaze is clear, but contains iron in small amounts. When applied over a white porcelain body the glaze produces a greenish-blue colour that gives the glaze its name. Some have incised or moulded decorations.

The Song dynasty qingbai bowl illustrated was likely made at the Jingdezhen village of Hutian, which was also the site of the Imperial kilns established in 1004. The bowl has incised decoration, possibly representing clouds or the reflection of clouds in the water. The body is white, translucent and has the texture of very-fine sugar, indicating that it was made using crushed and refined pottery stone instead of pottery stone and kaolin. The glaze and the body of the bowl would have been fired together, in a saggar, possibly in a large wood-burning dragon-kiln or climbing-kiln, typical of southern kilns in the period.

Though many Song and Yuan qingbai bowls were fired upside down in special segmented saggars, a technique first developed at the Ding kilns in Hebei province. The rims of such wares were left unglazed but were often bound with bands of silver, copper or lead.

One remarkable example of qingbai porcelain is the so-called Fonthill Vase, described in a guide for Fonthill Abbey published in 1823

“…an oriental china bottle, superbly mounted, said to be the earliest known specimen of porcelain introduced into Europe”

The vase was made at Jingdezhen, probably around 1300 and was sent as a present to Pope Benedict XII by one of the last Yuan emperors of China, in 1338. The mounts referred to in the 1823 description were of enamelled silver-gilt and were added to the vase in Europe in 1381. An 18th century water colour of the vase complete with its mounts exists, but the mounts themselves were removed and lost in the 19th century. The vase is now in the National Museum of Ireland. It is often held that qingbai wares were not subject to the higher standards and regulations of the other porcelain wares, since they were made for everyday use. They were mass-produced, and received little attention from scholars and antiquarians. The Fonthill Vase, given by a Chinese emperor to a pope, might appear to cast at least some doubt on this view.

Feb

8

Qing Dynasty porcelain

By Ceramic Design



Primary source material on Qing Dynasty porcelain is available from both foreign residents and domestic authors. Two letters written by Père Francois Xavier d’Entrecolles, a Jesuit missionary and industrial spy who lived and worked in Jingdezhen in the early eighteenth century, described in detail manufacturing of porcelain in the city. In his first letter dated 1712, d’Entrecolles described the way in which pottery stones were crushed, refined and formed into little white bricks, known in Chinese as petuntse. He then went on to describe the refining of china clay kaolin along with the developmental stages of glazing and firing. He explained his motives:

Nothing but my curiosity could ever have prompted me to such researches, but it appears to me that a minute description of all that concerns this kind of work might, be useful in Europe.

In 1743, during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor, Tang Ying, the imperial supervisor in the city produced a memoir entitled “Twenty illustrations of the manufacture of porcelain.” Unfortunately, the original illustrations have been lost, but the text of the memoir is still accessible.

Feb

8

Han dynasty ceramic

By Ceramic Design



Han dynasty, 202 BC-220 AD

Painted pottery pot with raised reliefs of dragons and phoenixes, Western Han Dynasty (202 BC – 9 AD)

Some experts believe the first true porcelain was made in the province of Zhejiang during the Eastern Han period. Shards recovered from archaeological Eastern Han kiln sites estimated firing temperature ranged from 1260 to 1300 °C. As far back as 1000 BC, the so-called “Porcelaneous wares” or “proto-porcelain wares were made using at least some kaolin fired at high temperatures. The dividing line between the two and true porcelain wares is not a clear one. Archaeological finds have pushed the dates to as early as the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD).

The late Han years saw the early development of the peculiar art form of hunping, or “soul jar”: a funerary jar whose top was decorated by a sculptural composition. This type vessels became widespread during the following Jin Dynasty and the Six Dynasties.

Jun

9

Ceramic Money Box – Fish

By Ceramic Design



How do you locate a truly unique and original gift? Ceramic Money Box – Fish

Simple. Get one of our hand-made money boxes – you can have a name added to make it unique for your child or friend. A great way to teach people to save money!

Images of our Whale Money Boxes are shown below, but don’t forget – we make money boxes in ALL SORTS of animal styles.

Jun

9

Ceramic Money Boxs – Elephants

By Ceramic Design



We make hand-made and unique elephant money boxs with the trunk up, straight out, or downwards, depending upon the weather.

Well, you have to make the decision somehow.