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Jul

8

Blue-and-white Incense Burner with the Pattern of the Eight Trigrams

By Ceramic Design Ideas



Blue-and-white Incense Burner with the Pattern of the Eight Trigrams

 

Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368)

The long and short horizontal strokes on the outer wall of the incense burner are Daoist symbols–the eight trigrams for divining the future. The lotus is popularly known as “Buddhism flower”. Lotus petals were popular motifs for decoration in Buddhist culture. These decoration motifs on the incense burner reflect people’s religious believes at that time

 

Jun

26

Red Pottery Bowl with Flat Bottom

By Ceramic Design Ideas



Red Pottery Bowl with Flat Bottom

Cishan Culture (ca. 6000-5600 BCE), Neolithic Era (ca. 10000- ca. 2000 BCE)

Pottery of the Cishan culture is dominated by red pottery, and the bowl is one of the most common forms. The Cishan culture is named after the village of Cishan, in Wu’an county, Hebei province, where the first finds of this type were made in 1972. It dates to the Northern China Middle Neolithic, 6000-5600 BC.

Jun

1

Ju Ware Bowl in the Shape of a Lotus

By Ceramic Design



Ju Ware Bowl in the Shape of a Lotus – Northern Sung period (960-1126).

Height: 10.4 cm, diameter: 16.2 cm, diameter of base: 8.1 cm, depth: 7.6 cm, weight: 465 g

Ju Ware Bowl in the Shape of a Lotus

This ten-lobed lotus bowl has gently curved sides, a subtly flaring rim, smooth transition from one petal lobe to the next, and a relatively tall ring foot. The blue-green glaze, from rim to the base, is uniformly thin and opaque, with fine crackling. During firing, this piece was supported by five tiny points underneath the ring foot, and these are the only parts of the body not covered by the glaze. At these points, it is possible to make out the grayish-yellow unglazed ceramic body.

Jun

1

High-stemmed Black Pottery Cup

By Ceramic Design



High-stemmed Black Pottery Cup

High-stemmed Black Pottery Cup – Shantung Lung-shan Culture (ca. 2600-2000 BC), Neolithic period. Height: 24 cm, rim diameter: 11 cm, base diameter: 6 cm.

During the Lung-shan Culture, the technique of using a potting wheel to produce ceramic objects was developed. Vessels with very thin walls could be made, and even carved with openwork patterns, in what became known as “egg-shell pottery”. In the kiln, the adding of charcoal at the very end or closing the air intake would create a flux of carbon that creates black pottery.

 

Jun

1

White Pottery Gui Pitcher

By Ceramic Design



White Pottery Gui Pitcher – Late Ta-wen-k’ou Culture (ca. 4200-2600 BC), Neolithic period, Height: 29.5 cm, body height: 21.6 cm, width at widest: 16.9 cm

White Pottery Gui Pitcher

White pottery was made using clay with a higher concentration of aluminum oxide that is then fired. The potters in the Ta-wen-k’ou Culture used clay to fashion vessels like this one for alcoholic beverages that suggest an abstract bird craning its neck as it cries out.

Mar

12

Ceramics throughout the Past Dynasties in the Collection of the Palace Museum

By Ceramic Design



A total of 429 ceramic objects, representing a comprehensive history of the development of Chinese ceramics, comprise this permanent exhibition. The new exhibition incorporates the newest advancements in ancient ceramics research. Housed in an expanded exhibition space, the new exhibition utilizes electronic technology to better educate and interact with viewers. Optimal lighting allows viewers to see the objects more clearly. A specially designed electronic exhibition area, which includes educational films, touch screens and interactive games provide a fun learning experience for children and adults. Moreover, electronic touch screens located throughout the exhibition allow viewers to learn more about the displayed works.
Ceramics throughout the Past Dynasties in the Collection of the Palace Museum

Visiting Information 
Opening times
Ticket sold:8:30—15:30
Openning Hours:8:30—16:30
Last Entry:15:40
Admission:Ticket: 40 rmb/person
           Treasure Gallery: 10 rmb/person
           Clock Gallery: 10 rmb/person
           Children under 120 cm in height are free of charge

Feb

26

Joseon Dynasty porcelain

By Ceramic Design



Joseon white porcelain and Buncheong

During the Joseon Dynasty, (1392–1910) ceramic ware was considered to represent the highest quality of achievement from imperial, city, and provincial kilns, the last of which were export-driven wares. This was the golden age of Korean pottery, with a long period of growth in imperial and provincial kilns, and much work of the highest quality still preserved.

Wares evolved along Chinese lines in terms of colour, shape, and technique. Celadon, white porcelain, and storage pottery were similar, but with slight variations in glazes, incision designs, florality, and weight. The Ming influence in blue and white wares using cobalt-blue glazes existed, but without the pthalo blue range, and the three-dimensional glassine colour depth of Ming Dynasty Chinese works.

Simplified designs emerged early on. Buddhist designs still prevailed in celadon wares: lotus flowers, and willow trees. The form most often seen was that of pear-shaped bottles. Notable were thinner glazes, and colourless glazes for buncheong or stoneware.
After the prolonged fall of the Ming dynasty, immigration of some Chinese master potters occurred in southern coastal Korea. Qing colouring, brighter and almost Scythian in enamel imitation, was rejected by Korean potters, in favour of simpler, less decorated wares in keeping with a new dynasty that built itself on military tradition.

Generally, the ceramics of this dynasty is divided into early, middle, and late periods, changing every two centuries, approximately; thus 1300 to 1500 is the early period, 1500 to 1700 the middle, and 1700 to 1900–1910 the late period.

The wares began to assume more traditional Korean glazes and more specific designs to meet regional needs. This is to be expected, as the Scythian art influences were of the former dynasty. The rise of white porcelain occurred as a result of Confucian influence and ideals, resulting in purer, less pretentious forms lacking artifice and complexity.

In 1592 during the Japanese invasion of Korea, entire villages of Korean potters were forcibly relocated to Japan permanently damaging the pottery industry as craftsmen had to relearn techniques because the masters were gone.

Feb

26

Goryeo Dynasty porcelain

By Ceramic Design



The Goryeo Dynasty (918–1392) achieved the unification of the Later Three Kingdoms under King Taejo. The works of this period are considered by some to be the finest small-scale works of ceramics in Korean history.

Key-fret, foliate designs, geometric or scrolling flowerhead bands, elliptical panels, stylized fish and insects, and the use of incised designs began at this time. Glazes were usually various shades of celadon, with browned glazes to almost black glazes being used for stoneware and storage. Celadon glazes could be rendered almost transparent to show black and white inlays.

While the forms generally seen are broad-shouldered bottles, larger low bowls or shallow smaller bowls, highly decorated celadon cosmetic boxes, and small slip-inlaid cups, the Buddhist potteries also produced melon-shaped vases, chrysanthemum cups often of spectacularly architectural design on stands with lotus motifs and lotus flower heads. In-curving rimmed alms bowls have also been discovered similar to Korean metalware. Wine cups often had a tall foot which rested on dish-shaped stands.

Feb

26

Korean pottery and porcelain

By Ceramic Design



The Three Kingdoms of Korea (57 BC-668 AD), namely Silla, Goguryeo, and Baekje, provided the beginning of Korean ceramic history. Rough domestic wares for the people were produced from numerous kilns. Likewise a number of very sophisticated statues of royal figures, guardians, and horses, equivalent to Chinese Han Dynasty figures, used for domestic and imperial votive shrines, as well as for escorts of the dead in tombs of the nobles and kings, were turned on potter’s wheels, while others were formed using the traditional hammered clay and coil method.

During the Unified Silla period (668–935) pottery was simple in colour, shape, and design. Celadon was subsequently the main production, with baekja porcelain wares developing slowly in the 14th century, when the pace accelerated with new glazes, better clays, and surprising variations of the white of different clays.

The kilns at the time had to compete with Chinese wares on a variety of social levels. The Korean ceramic masters decided to distinguish Korean baekja or white porcelain from Chinese imports by maintaining simplicity in design when the practical problems of finding pure white glazes were solved. Dating of glazes from this era has revealed a celadon or jade patina beneath white glazes.

Baekja wares came from highly refined white clay, glazed with feldspar, and fired in large carefully regulated and very clean kilns. Despite the refining process, glazes in white colours always vary as a result of the properties of the clay itself; firing methods were not uniform, temperatures varied and glazes on pieces vary from pure white, in an almost snowy thickness, through milky white that shows the clay beneath deliberately in washed glaze, to light blue and light yellow patinas.

The baekja wares reached their zenith immediately before the Joseon Dynasty came to power. Fine pieces have recently been found in the area about Wolchil Peak in the Diamond Mountains. The transitional wares of white became expressions of the Joseon Dynasty celebrations of victory in many pieces decorated with Korean calligraphy. Traditionally white wares were used by both the scholarly Confucian class, the nobility, and royalty on more formal occasions.

Simultaneously, the Buddhist traditions demanded celadon-glazed wares, and cheongja pieces of celadon porcelain with more organic shapes drawing on gourds, with animal and bird motifs that evolved very quickly. In some ways these were over-decorated wares, using exaggerated forms, stylized repeating designs, and a wide variety of organic patterns.

Cheongja wares used refined earth clays with a bit of iron powder added, then a glaze with a bit of added iron powder added once again, then fired. The glaze dried to a hard finish and was durable with a slightly shinier and glossier finish, in an oily way, than whitewares.

Feb

21

Influences – Blue and white porcelain

By Ceramic Design



Influences on Islamic pottery

Further information: Chinese influences on Islamic pottery and İznik pottery

Chinese blue and white ware became extremely popular in the Middle-East from the 14th century, where both Chinese and Islamic types coexisted.

From the 13th century, Chinese pictorial designs, such as flying cranes, dragons and lotus flowers also started to appear in the ceramic productions of the Near-East, especially in Syria and Egypt.

Chinese porcelain of the 14th or 15th century was transmitted to the Middle-East and the Near East, and especially to the Ottoman Empire either through gifts or through war booty. Chinese designs were extremely influential with the pottery manufacturers at Iznik, Turkey. The Ming “grape” design in particular was highly popular and was extensively reproduced under the Ottoman Empire.

Influences on European porcelains

Early influences

Chinese blue-and-white ware were copied in Europe from the 16th century, with the faience blue-and-white technique called alla porcelana. Soon after the first experiments to reproduce the material of Chinese blue-and-white porcelain were made with Medici porcelain. These early works seem to be mixing influences from Islamic as well as Chinese blue-and-white wares.

Direct Chinese imitations

By the beginning of the 17th century Chinese blue and white porcelain was being exported directly to Europe. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Oriental blue and white porcelain was highly prized in Europe and America and sometimes enhanced by fine silver and gold mounts, it was collected by kings and princes.

The European manufacture of porcelain started at Meissen in Germany in 1707. The detailed secrets of Chinese hard-paste porcelain technique were transmitted to Europe through the efforts of the Jesuit Father Francois Xavier d’Entrecolles between 1712 and 1722.

The early wares were strongly influenced by Chinese and other Oriental porcelains and an early pattern was blue onion, which is still in production at the Meissen factory today. The first phase of the French porcelain was also strongly influenced by Chinese designs. Early English porcelain wares were also influenced by Chinese wares and when, for example, the production of porcelain started at Worcester, nearly forty years after Meissen, Oriental blue and white wares provided the inspiration for much of the decoration used. Hand-painted and transfer-printed wares were made at Worcester and at other early English factories in a style known as Chinoiserie. Many other European factories followed this trend. In Delft, Netherlands blue and white ceramics taking their designs from Chinese export porcelains made for the Dutch market were made in large numbers throughout the 17th Century. Blue and white Delftware was itself extensively copied by factories in other European countries, including England, where it is known as English Delftware.

Patterns

The plate shown in the illustration (left) is decorated with the famous willow pattern and was probably made at a factory in the English county of Staffordshire. Such is the persistence of the willow pattern that it is difficult to date the piece shown with any precision; it is possibly quite recent but similar wares have been produced by English factories in huge numbers over long periods and are still being made today. The willow pattern, said to tell the sad story of a pair of star-crossed lovers, was an entirely European design, though one that was strongly influenced in style by design features borrowed from Chinese export porcelains of the 18th Century. The willow pattern was, in turn, copied by Chinese potters, but with the decoration hand painted rather than transfer-printed.